With the decline in donor HIV funding and shortage of health providers in developing countries, there is a need to address challenges in supporting the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART)/HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and other health services. With the rapid scale-up of ART and HCT to expand access and coverage of services, common human resources for health (HRH) management strategies have been employed to cope with the expansion in resource-limited settings and to ease the strain on a highly-demanded health workforce:
1) Integration of stand-alone antiretroviral and HIV counseling and testing services into the wider health system, especially when patient-loads are insufficient to justify a full-time-equivalent (FTE) ART/HCT provider
2) Decentralization of services
3) Task-shifting of services
4) Redistribution of health workers.