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Economics of Reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions in Central Asia


  • How Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan could use different energy options?
  • Abt investigated the costs and benefits of reducing GHG emissions
  • We provided national models to enable analysis of mitigation scenarios
The Challenge

Fossil fuels were a critical export and domestic-energy source as Uzbekistan’s economy grew 95 percent between 2000 and 2010, Kazakhstan’s grew 220 percent, and Azerbaijan’s grew 400 percent.  But fossil fuels also led to significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Asia Development Bank (ADB) wanted to examine how Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan could use different energy options. The ADB also wanted to explore using public- and private-sector financing to pursue green-growth strategies to reduce climate impact.

The Approach

Abt investigated  the costs and benefits of reducing GHG emissions and identified climate-change mitigation investment opportunities in the three countries’ energy and transport sectors.  Abt evaluated the options’ effectiveness in terms of GHG abatement, social costs, and co-benefits and assessed their potential interactions in a range of scenarios. Abt also provided capacity development for energy and transport experts so they could use the study’s national models to analyze mitigation scenarios.

The Results

The report:

  • Summarized the existing regional context for energy and transportation.
  • Described the study’s methodology for estimating energy supply and demand, GHG emissions, costs, benefits, and co-benefits.
  • Summarized the results of the GHG emissions baseline analysis for the study period of 2010-2050 with no action taken.
  • Presented the results of the cost-benefit and co-benefit analyses of the mitigation options and emissions scenarios.
  • Discussed the policy implications of the mitigation analysis.